About The Temple History

HISTORY - MUNDESHWARI INSCRIPTION

Local folklores say that Chanda and Munda who were full brothers and chieftains of great demon Mahishasura were rulers of the area. Mahishasura fought decisive battle with Gooddess Durga as mentioned in Durga Shaptshati. Munda made goddess Mundeshwari Bhawani temple while h younger brother Chanda made Chandeshwari temple atop Madurana hill near Chainpur.
But historical facts better explain its origin and its creators. After a study of broken Mundeshwari inscription of Brahmi script and its two parts found in 1891 and 1903 by Bloch (Now joined and kept in National Museum, Kolkata), Dr NG Majumdar and Dr KC Panigrahi stated to be the temple to be earlier than 4th century AD.
But recovery of a royal seal of great Shri Lankan emperor Maharaju Dutthagamani (101-77BC) from the place in 2003, changed the history. It established that a royal pilgrims group or monks from Shri Lanka visited the place during their journey to Sarnath from Bodh Gaya through famous Dakshinapath highway sometime between 101BC to 77BC and lost the seal here.
The existence of Naga (serpent) on four faced shivlingam, Naga janeu (sacred thread) on Ganesha idols not found anywhere in India and also on broken pieces scattered around the hill clearly indicated that it was a construction by rulers of Naga dynasty (110BC to 315AD) who used serpent as their royal sign.
Mahabharata mentioned that Guru Dronacharya has been made the ruler of Ahikshatra (region of serpents) spead over Ahinaura, Mirzapur, Sonbhadra and Kaimur region of present times, as a fee for educating Kaurava and Pandavas.
Udaysena, the ruler mentioned in the inscription had similarity with Naga dynasty rulers Nagsen, Veersen etc.
The existence of 52 Pur (villages) of Nagvanshi Rajpoots also indicate about their long control over the area.
Later the area came control of Gupta dynasty and the impact of their specific Nagra style of architecture and Ramgarh Fort and Ramgarh village near the hill probable on famous Gupta ruler Ramgupta are evidence of the fact.
After revelation of new facts, Bihar State Religious Trust Board (BSRTB) organized a national seminar of eminent experts at Patna in 2008 and the date of Mundeshwari inscription was unanimously fixed 108 AD.
The findings also established that here was a religious and educational center spread over the hillock and Mandaleshwar (Shiva) temple (present temple residing Shiva in middle of sanctum sanctorium) was the main shrine. The temple of Mandaleshwari (Parvati, better half of Shiva) was on southern side. The temple was damaged and the idol of Mandaleshwari (degenerated Mundeshwari and later connected with the mythical demon Mund) was kept in the eastern chamber of main temple.

HISTORICAL EVENTS

  • 636-38AD - Chinese visitor Huen Tsang writes about a shrine on a hill top flashing light, at about a distance of 200 lee south west to Patna- The location is only of Mundeshwari.

  • 1790 AD - Daniel brothers Thomas and William visited Mundeshwari temple and provided its first portrait.

  • 1888 AD – Buchanan visited the region in 1813..

  • 1891-92 AD – First part of the broken Mundeshwari Inscription was discovered by Bloch during a survey by East India Company.

  • 1903 AD – Second part of the inscription was discovered while clearing the debris around the temple.

  • 636-38AD - Chinese visitor Huen Tsang writes about a shrine on a hill top flashing light, at about a distance of 200 lee south west to Patna- The location is only of Mundeshwari.

  • 2003 AD – Brahmi script royal seal of great Shri Lankan emperor Maharaju Dutthagamani (101-77BC) was discovered by Varanasi based historian Jahnawi Shakhar Roy which changed the earlier findings about history of the place.

  • 2008 AD - The date of the inscription was established 30th year of Saka era (108AD) by the scholars in a national seminar organized for the purpose by Bihar State Religious Trust Board (BSRTB) at Patna.

The temple was declared oldest Hindu temple of the country by the scholars with 2000 years of live worship having its past in pre historic age.

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